Although some history books claim that hard bop arose as a reaction to the softer sounds featured in cool jazz, it was actually an extension of bop that largely ignored West Coast jazz. The main differences between hard bop and bop are that the melodies tend to be simpler and often more "soulful," the rhythm section is usually looser with the bassist not as tightly confined to playing four-beats-to-the-bar as in bop, a gospel influence is felt in some of the music and quite often the saxophonists and pianists sound as if they were quite familiar with early rhythm and blues. Since the prime time period of hard bop (1955-70) was a decade later than bop, these differences were a logical evolution and one can think of hard bop as bop of the 50's and 60's. By the early '60s, the music had already splintered into a number of different styles, notably Modal Jazz, Post-Bop and Soul-Jazz. By the second half of the 1960's, the influence of the avant-garde was being felt and some of the more adventurous performances of the hard bop stylists (such as Jackie McLean and Lee Morgan) fell somewhere between the two styles. With the rise of fusion and the sale of Blue Note (hard bop's top label) in the late 1960's, the style fell upon hard times although it was revived to a certain extent in the 1980's. Much of the music performed by the so-called Young Lions during the latter decade (due to other influences altering their style) can be said to play Modern Mainstream although some groups (such as the Harper Brothers and T.S. Monk's Sextet) have kept the 1960's idiom alive.

(Scott Yanow)


Hank Mobley - No Room For Squares

Listen to: No Room For Squares

Byrd, Donald (tp); Mobley, Hank (ts); Hancock, Herbie (p); Warren, Butch (b); Jones, Philly Joe (dr)

Recorded: 02-10-1963



Hank Mobley - Soul Station

Listen to: Soul Station

Mobley, Hank (ts); Kelly, Wynton (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Blakey, Art (dr)

Recorded: 07-02-1960



Wayne Shorter - Adams Apple

Listen to: Adams Apple

Shorter, Wayne (ts); Hancock, Herbie (p); Workman, Reginald (b); Chambers, Joe (dr)

Recorded: 03-02-1966



Tina Brooks - Back To The Tracks

Listen to: Back To The Tracks

Mitchell, Blue (tp); McLean, Jackie (as); Brooks, Tina (ts); Drew, Kenny (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Taylor, Art (dr)

Recorded: 1960



Jimmy Forrest - Out Of The Forrest

Listen to: Bolo Blues

Forrest, Jimmy (ts); Zawinul, Joe (p); Potter, Tommy (b); Johnston, Clarence (dr)

Recorded: 18-04-1961



Jackie McLean - New And Old Gospel

Listen to: Lifeline

McLean, Jackie (as); Coleman, Ornette (tp); Johnson, Lamont (p); Holt, Scott (b); Higgins, Billy (dr)

Recorded: 24-03-1967



Jackie McLean - Jackies Bag

Listen to: Quadrangle

Byrd, Donald (tp); McLean, Jackie (as); Clark, Sonny (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Jones, Philly Joe (dr)

Recorded: 18-01-1959



Jackie McLean - Let Freedom Ring

Listen to: Melody For Melonae

McLean, Jackie (as); Davis, Walter (p); Lewis, Herbie (b); Higgins, Billy (dr)

Recorded: 19-03-1962



Jackie McLean - One Step Beyond

Listen to: Saturday And Sunday

Moncur, Grachan (tb); McLean, Jackie (as); Hutcherson, Bobby (vib); Khan, Eddie (b); Williams, Tony (dr)

Recorded: 01-03-1963



Eric Kloss - In The Land Of The Giants

Listen to: Summertime

Kloss, Eric (as); Ervin, Booker (ts); Byard, Jaki (p); Davis, Richard (b); Dawson, Alan (dr)

Recorded: 02-01-1969



Wynton Kelly - Smokin At The Half Note

Listen to: Four On Six

Montgomery, Wes (g); Kelly, Wynton (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Cobb, Jimmy (dr)

Recorded: 1961



Herbie Hancock - Takin Off

Listen to: Watermelon Man

Hubbard, Freddie (tp); Gordon, Dexter (ts); Hancock, Herbie (p); Warren, Butch (b); Higgins, Billy (dr)

Recorded: 28-05-1962



Les McCann - In New York

Listen to: Chip Monck

Les McCann Ltd.: Mitchell, Blue (tp); Turrentine, Stanley (ts); Haines, Frank (ts); McCann, Les (p); Lewis, Herbie (b); Jefferson, Ron (dr)

Recorded: 28-12-1961



Sonny Clark - Cool Struttin

Listen to: Cool Struttin'

Farmer, Art (tp); McLean, Jackie (as); Clark, Sonny (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Jones, Philly Joe (dr)

Recorded: 05-01-1958



Cedar Walton - Night At The Boomers

Listen to: The Highest Mountain

Jordan, Clifford (ts); Walton, Cedar (p); Jones, Sam (b); Hayes, Louis (dr)

Recorded: 04-01-1973



Milt Jackson - Bags Meets Wes

Listen to: S.K.J.

Jackson, Milt (vib); Montgomery, Wes (g); Kelly, Wynton (p); Jones, Sam (b); Jones, Philly Joe (dr)

Recorded: 18/19 Dezember 1961



Bobby Hutcherson - Happenings

Listen to: Aquarian Moon

Hutcherson, Bobby (vib); Hancock, Herbie (p); Cranshaw, Bob (b); Chambers, Joe (dr)

Recorded: 08-02-1966



Kenny Burrell - Midnight Blue

Listen to: Chitlins Con Carne

Turrentine, Stanley (ts); Burrell, Kenny (g); Holley, Major Jr. (b); English, Bill (dr); Barretto, Ray (cga)

Recorded: 07-01-1963



Wes Montgomery - Full House

Listen to: Full House

Montgomery, Wes (g); Griffin, Johnny (ts); Kelly, Wynton (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Cobb, Jimmy (dr)

Recorded: 25-06-1962



Jazz Crusaders - Live At The Lighthouse

Listen to: Aleluia

Felder, Wilton (ts); Henderson, Wayne (tb); Sample, Joe (p); Vinnegar, Leroy (b); Hooper, Stix (dr)

Recorded: 14-16 Januar 1966



Grant Green - Green Street

Listen to: Green Street

Grren, Grant (g); Tucker, Ben (b); Bailey, Dave (dr)

Recorded: 01-04-1961



Chico Hamilton - Man From Two Worlds

Listen to: Man From Two Worlds

Lloyd, Charles (ts); Szabo, Gabor (g); Stinson, Albert (b); Hamilton, Chico (dr)

Recorded: 11-12-1963



Elvin Jones - Puttin Together

Listen to: Reza

Farrell, Joe (ts, ss, fl); Garrison, Jimmy (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 08-04-1968



Pete LaRocca - Basra

Listen to: Basra

Henderson, Joe (tsd); Kihn, Steve (p); Swallow, Steve (b); LaRoca, Pete (dr)

Recorded: 19-05-1965


Shelly Manne - At The Blackhawk

Listen to: Summertime

Manne, Shelly (dr); Gordon, Joe (tp); Kamuca, Richie (ts); Feldman, Victor (p); Budwig, Monty (b)

Recorded: 22-09-1959



Lee Morgan - Capra

Listen to: Capra Black

Morgan, Lee (tp, flh); Mabern, Harold (p); Humphrey, Bobbi (fl); Harper, Billy (ts, afl); Moncur, Grachan (tb); Merritt, Jymie (elb); Workman, Reggie (b, perc); Waits, Freddie (dr)

Recorded: 17 & 18 September 1971



Lee Morgan - Search For The New Land

Listen to: Search For The New Land

Morgan, Lee (tp); Shorter, Wayne (ts); Green, Grant (g); Hancock, Herbie (p); Workman, Reginald (b); Higgins, Billy (dr)

Recorded: 15-02-1964



Art Farmer - Interaction

Listen to: Days Of Wine And Roses

Farmer, Art (flh); Hall, Jim (g); Swallow, Steve (b); Perkins, Walter (dr)

Recorded: 25 & 29 July 1963



Lee Morgan - Sidewinder

Listen to: The Sidewinder

Morgan, Lee (tp); Henderson, Joe (ts); Harris, Barry (p); Cranshaw, Bob (b); Higgins, Billy (dr)

Recorded: 21-12-1963



Jimmy Smith/Kenny Burrell - Blue Bash

Listen to: Travelin'

Burrell, Kenny (g); Smith, Jimmy (org); Hinton, Milt; Duvivier, George (b); Lewis, Mel; English, Bill (dr)

Recorded: July 1963


Jimmy Smith - Prayer Meeting

Listen to: Prayer Meeting

Smith, Jimmy (org); Turrentine, Stanley (ts); Warren, Quentin (g); Jones, Sam (b); Bailey, Donald (dr)

Recorded: 08-02-1963



Lonnie Smith - Think

Listen to: Think

Morgan, Lee (tp); Newman, Dave (ts, fl); Sparks, Melvin (g); Smith, Lonnie (org); Booker, Marion (dr); Brown, Henry (timb); Bivins, Willie (cga); Apellaniz, Noberto (cga)

Recorded: 23-07-1968